E. Rigas, K. Tsompanidis, “Congestion Management for Mobility-on-Demand Schemes that use Electric Vehicles”, 17th European Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (EUMAS 2020), 14-15 September 2020, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Author(s): E. Rigas, K. Tsompanidis
Keywords: Electric vehicles, mobility-on-demand, scheduling, heuristic search, cooperative
Abstract: To date the majority of commuters use their privately owned vehicle that uses an internal combustion engine. This transportation model suffers from low vehicle utilization and causes environmental pollution. This paper studies the use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) operating in a Mobility-on-Demand (MoD) scheme and tackles the related management challenges. We assume a number of customers acting as cooperative agents requesting a set of alternative trips and EVs distributed across a number of pick-up and drop-off stations. In this setting, we propose congestion management algorithms which take as input the trip requests and calculate the EV-to-customer assignment aiming to maximize trip execution by keeping the system balanced in terms of matching demand and supply. We propose a Mixed-Integer-Programming (MIP) optimal offline solution which assumes full knowledge of customer demand and an equivalent online greedy algorithm that can operate in real time. The online algorithm uses three alternative heuristic functions in deciding whether to execute a customer request: (a) The sum of squares of all EVs in all stations, (b) the percentage of trips' destination location fullness and (c) a random choice of trip execution. Through a detailed evaluation, we observe that (a) provides an increase of up to 4.8% compared to (b) and up to 11.5% compared to (c) in terms of average trip execution, while all of them achieve close to the optimal performance. At the same time, the optimal scales up to settings consisting of tenths of EVs and a few hundreds of customer requests.